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Neem oil and margosa extract, 100% vegetable repulsive

Neem seed (azadirachta indica)

Distinction Between Neem Oil and Margosa Extract

Neem oil and Margosa extract both come from the seed of the Margosa tree, also known as the Neem tree.

The difference between Neem oil and Margosa extract is the extraction process used. Virgin Neem oil is obtained by simple cold pressing of the seeds. The Margosa extract, on the other hand, is obtained in the laboratory, using different extraction processes. One or more active molecules can then be selected.

Regulation Neem oil - Margosa extract

A biocide, to be authorized for sale, must have at least one active molecule classified as TP18 (insecticide) or TP19 (repellent).

Committees decide to remove or add a molecule to this list. For now, margosa extract (case: 84696-25-3) is only TP19. Neem oil and Azadirachtin are not on this list.

A biocide can also be classified as phytosanitary, ie usable on plants. For this he must first obtain a marketing authorization (AMM) and for the moment no product based on Neem oil or its derivatives has in France an AMM (Marketing Authorization) .

It is true that before obtaining an MA, the active ingredient must already be accepted by the European Commission and listed in Annex I of Directive 91/414/EEC.

All these procedures require human and above all financial resources. We understand better why it is easier for a multinational to obtain this famous sesame than for a small company with few means.

See COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DIRECTIVE 2011/44/EU of 13 April 2011 on Azadirachtin

Neem-based pesticides have been registered in the USA since 1999.

General information on Neem oil

Neem, as a natural insecticide, has been used for several years in Canada, Brazil, Japan, Australia, India and Europe.

In Brazil, it is used in vegetable and fruit crops. In Canada in the treatment of conifers either by spraying or by injection directly into the tree.

Neem oil contains many active ingredients (more than 168 compounds). These active ingredients are made up of a group of 7 related substances including azadirachtin (Azadirachtin A: C35H44O16 and Azadirachtin B: C33H42O16) whose insecticidal properties have been recognized.

Recent studies have shown that azadirachtin, with undeniable insecticidal properties, does not act alone and that other components of neem must complete its insecticidal action.

These other potentially active components present in large quantities would be: nimbidine, salannine, meliantriol, nimbine, azadirone, but also meliacins.

By the synergy of the many molecules that make up neem, it was found that the risk of insect addiction was very low, which may not be the case for the Azadirachtin molecule used alone.

For more information, you can consult the file produced by Paul Sabatier University.

Warning : do not confuse Neem oil (Case: 8002-65-61) which is a vegetable oil like olive oil and found in many cosmetics, with Margosa extract (Case: 84696-25-3) which is used in biocidal preparations or even azadirachtin (Case: 11141-17-6) obtained using a solvent and which is currently prohibited in France.

Neem Oil Toxicity

Neem oil has low toxicity to mammals and birds (LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg for rats) and is not mutagenic. Neem oil is very weakly toxic to bees.

Properties of Neem Oil

The insecticidal effects of Neem oil have been observed in 400 species of harmful arthropods such as Lepidoptera (butterflies), Diptera (flies, horseflies, mosquitoes,..), Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts,..), Hymenoptera and some species of aphids.

Unlike most insecticides, Neem oil is not a neurotoxin (which acts on the nervous system). To be effective, it must therefore physically be in contact with the insect either because it touches the product or because it consumes it.

At least 12 modes of action on insects have been listed : repellent, anti-feedant, phago-deterrent, growth regulator, egg-laying in females, etc.

According to Indian neem tree compagny, Neem intervenes at several stages of the life of an insect. It does not kill parasites instantly (shock effect of neurotoxins) but rather acts in the long term on its growth and reproduction. The results are therefore not immediate. A little patience is required after applying a Neem-based product.

1 The most important property of Neem is to deter the insect from feeding. The presence of azadirachtin, salanin and melandriol contained in the Neem prevents the larva from feeding on the treated plants.

2 Neem prevents females from laying eggs.

3 The formation of chitin (exoskeleton) is also inhibited.

4 Mating as well as sexual communication is disturbed.

5 Larvae and adult insects are repelled (repellent effect of compounds similar to sulfur).

6 Adults are sterilized.

7 Neem acts through respiration on practically all insect tissues (muscular, nervous, glandular tissues). As a consequence, the insect loses coordination of its movements and control of its body.

8 According to the concentration of azadirachtin :

  1. The larva fails to molt, remains in the larval stage and eventually dies.
  2. The larva manages to enter the molting stage, but dies at this stage.
  3. The adult emerges from the moult but being sterile it cannot reproduce.

Areas of application of Neem oil

For several years, neem has been used as a biocide in many countries, including Brazil, which since 2001 has commonly used it for animal care, agriculture, and fruit and vegetable production.
According to Agromix Brazil it is used in :

  1. Agriculture : caterpillars, mealybugs, whiteflies, thrips, aphids, vaquinha and beetles, whitefly, fruit fly, leafhopper, tomato leafminer, citrus and other leafminers, centipedes, earwigs, meloydogine, and other nematodes. Disease of the root system and plant stem, bean powdery mildew, …
  2. Livestock farming : ticks, lice, fleas, horn fly, stable and pigsty fly, scabies, mites, farm beetles, triatomine bugs.
  3. Grain storage : weevils
  4. Animals : Treatment of stables and houses, simply mixed with water to wash horses, dogs and cats.

Other examples :
In Jork (Germany), 40 hectares of orchards have been treated with azadirachtin for 7 years, which has definitively stemmed the infestations of ash apple aphids.
In Canada, in silviculture Neem oil has been evaluated in various tree plantations. Result: Azadirachtin was recognized as very effective against the defoliating larvae of 13 species of Lepidoptera and sawflies (Hymenoptera).

According to the Neem reference site:, the effectiveness of Neem oil has been proven in the laboratory, greenhouse and in the field on :

  • Two-spotted spider mite in the laboratory
  • The green peach aphid (Myzus percicae), the greenhouse whitefly in the laboratory
  • Western flower thrips in the laboratory and greenhouse
  • Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato mosaic virus Y (PVY) in the greenhouse
  • Mites, aphids, greenhouse whiteflies, black flies in the greenhouse
  • Green beans against bean fly and locust in the field
  • Watermelons against cucurbit maggot in the field
  • Tomatoes against tomato fruitworm, whiteflies, leaf miners, leaf aphids, thrips in the field
  • Strawberry against tarnished plant bug in the field
  • Broccoli, rutabaga, cabbage, radish against cabbage maggot in field
  • Onions against onion fly in the field
  • Tunnel rosemary against leafhopper (Eupterix decemnota), mites, whiteflies, thrips
  • Strawberries against strawberry powdery mildew in the laboratory
  • The apple tree against the ash aphid and the leaf aphid in the orchard

Other tests carried out in the laboratory and in the greenhouse by the Canadian Horticultural Research and Development Center ( confirm and complete all the results already obtained :

  • In the laboratory and greenhouse : two-spotted spider mite, green peach aphid, greenhouse whitefly and western flower thrips.
  • In greenhouses : potato leafroll virus PLRV) and potato mosaic virus Y (PVY), both transmitted by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae).
  • In the greenhouse : mites, aphids, greenhouse whiteflies, black flies and thrips.
  •  In the open field in Burkina Faso on green beans against the bean fly and locust, on watermelons against the cucurbit fly, on tomatoes against the tomato fruitworm, aphids and whiteflies.
  • In the open field in Quebec on strawberries (tarnished plant bug), cranberries (cranberry leafroller and cranberry fruitworm), broccoli, rutabaga, cabbage and radish (cabbage maggot), peppers (tarnished plant bug and fruitworm) , onions (onion maggot), potato (beetles and aphids).
  • In the Czech Republic, trials were carried out on the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae).
  • In Switzerland, tunnel culture of rosemary on the leafhopper (Eupterix decemnota).

It should also be noted that these formulations have not demonstrated harmful effects against beneficial insects such as Encarcia and predatory mites such as Phytoseiulus persimilis in integrated pest management.

But beware, Neem oil could be dangerous for bee larvae, causing malformations (atrophied wings).

Neem oil is also an anti-parasitic repellent and household acaricide. Can be used both curatively and preventively, on plants of course, but also on animals against ticks, flies, fleas, mosquitoes... . or dust mites on sofas, mattresses, cushions, carpets ...

Use of Neem Oil Abroad

Reminder : Even if Neem oil is authorized in many countries for the treatment of plants intended for human consumption, in France it can currently only be used for domestic use, i.e. only for the treatment house or balcony plants !

As a preventive measure: on aphids, mites, spiders, beetles, and other parasitic insects, spray once every 2 weeks. As a cure: spray once a week until the parasite has completely disappeared, then once every 2 weeks.

Market gardening / horticulture : Preventative (first leaves) 0.5% solution and curative 2% solution

Arboriculture / Red fruits / Vine : Preventive (first leaves) 0.5% solution and curative 2% solution

Lawn : Preventive (end of winter): 1% solution and curative 3% solution

Testing Neem Oil on Mosquito Larvae

Several studies have also been conducted on mosquito larvae in the laboratory or in the field.

The various laboratory tests have shown that with a concentration of 9% pure Neem oil, we obtained 100% mortality in 24 hours of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and with a concentration of 1% a mortality of 98.85% after 5 days.

It was also noted that with pure Neem oil, not only the larvae were killed by the active ingredients but also by lack of oxygen: the layer that forms on the surface of the water prevents the larvae from breathe.

Field tests (reservoirs, wells, pits, swimming pools, etc.) have been carried out in India on Culex, Aedes and Anopheles mosquito larvae, also with excellent results.

The average reduction in % of the larval density, depending on the habitats and the type of mosquito, is > 95% on the 1st day and still 80% 3 weeks after application.

Conclusion of the trials : the formulation of Neem oil has proven to be effective in controlling mosquito larvae in the different breeding habitats. Under natural conditions, a > 80% reduction in Anopheles, Culex and Aedes larvae has been observed up to three weeks after application.


Conclusion on Neem Oil

Neem oil as a natural insecticide has interesting properties but unlike pyrethrum, which is also a natural insecticide, their modes of action are different. Neem has a long-term mode of action, it takes several hours to see several days before an insect or a population of insects disappears, while pyrethrum with its "shock effect" kills the insect instantly. If the insect does not die, it is possible that resistance will develop in subsequent generations.

Margosa extract

The extract of margosa we offer is 50% concentrated and packaged in a 200ml jar.

The following information was extracted from the site of Terra Nostra, a German company that provides us with the Margosa extract. This information is therefore only valid for the Margosa extract that we market.

  1. Margosa Extract, a natural repellent
    1. Margosa extract (CAS No. 84696-25-3) is a natural product in which no other natural or synthetic components are added. It is produced from the seed of the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss.
    2. Its main components are fatty acids, such as oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid. They are present as glycerides or as free acids. Complementary components include limonoids, such as nimbin, salannin, and azadirachtin.
    3. We guarantee that our margosa extract is free of aflatoxins in compliance with the German ordinance on maximum mycotoxin concentrations (MHmV), which makes it possible to use margosa extract not only in biocidal products, but also in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  2. Range of applications of Margosa Extract
    1. Margosa extract can be used to control many species of insects and arachnoids, such as silverfish (Lepisma saccarina), flies (Musca domestica), pharaoh ants (Monomarium pharaonis), black ants (Lasius Niger garden), red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) and mites (Dermatophagoides farinae).
    2. In most target organisms, the repellent effect can be observed even at low doses. Immediately after application of Margosa, treated surfaces produce a repellent effect on organisms that show pronounced flight behavior.
    3. An additional effect occurs in some species of insects. If their food is located on the treated surface, the bitter compounds of natural origin contained in the extract of Margosa, make it unsuitable for the consumption of these insects. The insects either leave the treated area in search of food or remain and eventually starve. In any case, the absence of food suppresses the ability of insects to reproduce due to the lack of proteins and essential amino acids.
    4. A development of habituation or even resistance against Margosa extract by organisms is prevented, or at least considerably reduced thanks to its large number of active constituents.

  3. Margosa Extract Toxicology
    1. Numerous toxicological studies have been performed on margosa extract as part of the biocide notification process.
      1. Oral LD50 in rat > 2000 mg/kg
      2. Rat Dermal LD50 > 2000 mg/kg
      3. By inhalation, rat LD50 > 5.15 mg/l air
      4. Skin irritation: non-irritant
      5. Eye irritation: non-irritant
      6. Skin sensitization: no sensitization
    2. In addition to these toxicological data required for the safety data sheet (SDS), other toxicological studies have also been carried out. The results showed that no danger symbol and no risk phrase was necessary.

  4. Production of Margosa Extract
    Margosa extract is made in Germany by a high-tech process (international patent) in which the extract is obtained by using carbon dioxide in a supercritical state as an extractant.
    The constituents, very pure, being extracted very gently by CO2 at high pressure.

    This state-of-the-art process offers many advantages over conventional methods of obtaining margosa extract :
    1. No residue of organic solvents in the extract.
    2. Only traces of undesirable substances such as sulfur compounds and phenols are present, which also increases the effectiveness of the extract.
    3. The extract does not contain any of the contaminants responsible for the strong odor frequently encountered.
    4. The extract obtained is sterile. It does not contain water, protein or polysaccharide, thus avoiding the possibility of bacterial growth.
    After the CO2 extraction, the Margosa extract is analyzed in a laboratory to check if it meets the specifications. A check is also made on the content of fungal toxins (aflatoxins).