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Pyrethroid family



General information on pyrethroids

Synthetic analogue of natural pyrethrins but with better light stability, they exert toxic activity on lice, moths and other arthropods by disrupting the transport of sodium in the membranes of nerve cells while being of low toxicity in mammals.

German studies have shown acute poisoning and some chronic effects after using household sprays containing pyrethroids.

Contrary to what many people think, the use of pesticides containing pyrethroids is not without consequences. Without being as dangerous as the well-known DDT, these products should be used in moderation. At Penn'Ty Bio, we obviously recommend that you refrain from using this type of substance and favor natural active ingredients from the plant kingdom. Our catalog of insecticides and repellents is based on this approach.

In order for you to know them better, we present below the main categories representing the family of pyrethroids, synthetic active substances.

Cypermethrin

Cypermethrin is a photostable pyrethroid with a broad spectrum of activity, presenting a prolonged persistence of action. This substance is effective even at low concentrations. For all these reasons, Cypermethrin has been widely used throughout the world for the protection of a wide variety of crops (cereals, cotton, coffee, etc.)

This substance is listed in article 95 of the biocide regulation in the “Insecticide” category (TP18).

Physico-chemical properties : Cypermethrin consists of eight isomers: 4 cis and 4 trans, the first of which are the most active. Cypermethrin is available in cis/trans ratios 40/60.
Appearance : very viscous liquid substance at room temperature, amber yellow to brown in color.
Content : 92% min.

Mode of action : Cypermethrin is used for many applications, both on flying insects and on crawling insects, and both in aerosol and in spray solutions. Acting by contact and ingestion, it is effective against a wide variety of insects: house flies, blow flies and other diptera, mosquitoes, wasps, hornets, cockroaches, lice, fleas, earwigs, ants, beetles, larvae of lepidoptera, aphids, xylophagous insects, etc.

Use : The main uses are as follows: – in public hygiene, for the fight against cockroaches, etc… and the long-term control of flies and mosquitoes, – in domestic uses (aerosols with residual action against crawling insects: cockroaches, bugs , silverfish, etc.), – in industrial uses, for the preservation of wood as well as for the protection of other materials.

  • Acute toxicity (WHO classification): "moderately dangerous" for humans in the event of an accident
  • Chronic effects :
    • Cerebral and locomotion disorders, polyneuropathy, decreased immunity have been observed in humans after acute poisoning.
    • Possible human carcinogen according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), immunotoxic effects in laboratory animals.
    • Reproductive and developmental effects demonstrated in laboratory animals.
    • Disturbance of the hormonal system demonstrated in laboratory animals and in wildlife.
  • Interactions : Cypermethrin sees its degradation in the body thwarted by the presence of pesticides of the family of organophosphates and piperonyl butoxide.
  • Special sensitivities : Children would be more sensitive to cypermethrin than adults, at the same dose per kilo of body weight
  • Persistence : Persists approximately 3 months in the air and on surfaces after professional treatment of the premises
    Both machine washing and dry cleaning remove only part of the residue on textiles.
  • Ecotoxicity :
    • Very toxic to fish in which cypermethrin bioconcentrates and to aquatic arthropods
    • Toxic to bees and other beneficial insects as well as spiders.

Cyfluthrin

  • Acute toxicity (WHO classification): "moderately dangerous" for humans in the event of an accident
  • Chronic effects :
    • Neurotoxic in animals after acute intoxication but also after chronic exposure to low doses.
    • Has not been fully evaluated by the EPA for its possible carcinogenic potential.
    • Developmental effects demonstrated in laboratory animals.
    • Disturbance of the hormonal system highlighted by laboratory test.
  • Interactions : Cyfluthrin sees its degradation in the organism thwarted by the presence of pesticides of the family of organophosphates and piperonyl butoxide.
  • Persistence : Persists for at least 3 days on the floor of a treated room (no measurement taken after 3 days).
    Both machine washing and dry cleaning remove only part of the residue on textiles.
  • Ecotoxicity : Very toxic for fish, toxic for bees.

Permethrin

Permethrin is a first generation photostable pyrethroid, used for many years in agriculture for the protection of cotton and cereals.

Due to its very interesting characteristics (efficiency, low toxicity, good stability to light and heat, etc.), Permethrin remains one of the most widely used pyrethroids for non-phytosanitary uses.

This substance is listed in article 95 of the biocide regulation in the “Insecticide” category (TP18).

Physico-chemical properties :
Permethrin is made up of a mixture of isomers: cis and trans, the former of which are the most active. At the commercial stage, Permethrin with a cis/trans ratio of 25/75 was preferred, due to its lower toxicity.
Appearance : semi-crystallized substance at room temperature, amber yellow to brown in color.
Content : ≥ 93%

Mode of action :
Permethrin is an insecticide that acts by contact and by ingestion; like all pyrethroids it is active in the nervous system by disrupting the conduction of nerve impulses along the axons.

Use :
Thus, thanks to a broad spectrum of activity on insects, a good persistence of action, a favorable toxicological profile vis-à-vis humans and warm-blooded animals, Permethrin 25/75 is today still widely used and appreciated for many purposes :

- in public health (against parasites such as lice, nits, ticks, etc., and against endemic vectors such as mosquitoes). The O.M.S recommends its use for the manufacture of impregnated mosquito nets

- domestic uses (anti-fly, anti-cockroach, anti-wasp sprays, insect barrier spray, etc.)
- in public hygiene, for the fight against cockroaches, fleas, etc. and the long-term control of flies and mosquitoes

  • Acute toxicity (WHO classification): "moderately dangerous" for humans in the event of an accident
  • Chronic effects :
    • Cerebral and locomotion disorders, polyneuropathy, decreased immunity have been observed in humans after acute poisoning.
    • Possible human carcinogen according to the EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
    • Immunotoxic effects in laboratory animals.
    • Effects on embryo development demonstrated in laboratory animals.
    • Effects on the reproductive system demonstrated in laboratory animals.
    • Disturbance of the hormonal system demonstrated in laboratory animals and in wildlife.
  • Interactions : Permethrin sees its degradation in the organism thwarted by the presence of pesticides of the family of organophosphates and piperonyl butoxide.
  • Persistence : Studies show that permethrin is found, thanks to the circulation of dust in the house, on all surfaces (including those of the kitchen) in significant concentrations still 2 years after the initial application on a floor.
  • Special sensitivities : Children are more sensitive to permethrin than adults, at the same dose per kilogram of body weight.
  • Ecotoxicity :
    • Very toxic to fish and aquatic insects in which permethrin bioconcentrates. Some aquatic crustaceans are also very sensitive to it.
    • Very toxic to bees and many other beneficial arthropods.

phenothrin

  • Acute toxicity (WHO classification): very low probability that it presents an acute danger to humans.
  • Chronic effects : Disturbance of the hormonal system highlighted by laboratory test.
  • Interactions : Phenothrin sees its degradation in the organism thwarted by the presence of pesticides of the family of organophosphates and piperonyl butoxide.

D-Tetramethrin

D-Tetramethrin is a pyrethroid with a broad spectrum of insect activity.

This substance is listed in article 95 of the biocide regulation in the “Insecticide” category (TP18).

Mode of action :
It is a very powerful reduction agent (shock effect) acting by contact. It is effective on most flying and crawling insects, especially flies, wasps, cockroaches...

Use :
D-Tetramethrin is widely used in the manufacture of aerosols and liquid, concentrated or ready-to-use products. Alone or in combination with another insecticide with a "kill" effect, such as Permethrin, Deltamethrin, etc.

The addition of the synergist Piperonyl Butoxide, makes it possible to potentiate its activity (that is to say to increase its biological effectiveness), while allowing significant savings to be made on the cost price of the formulation.

  • Acute toxicity (WHO classification): very low probability that it presents an acute danger to humans.
  • Chronic effects : Possible human carcinogen according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  • Interactions : Tetramethrin sees its degradation in the organism thwarted by the presence of pesticides of the family of organophosphates and piperonyl butoxide.
  • Ecotoxicity :
    • Extremely toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods.
    • Toxic to bees and other beneficial insects as well as spiders.
    • Slightly toxic to birds.

Deltamethrin

Deltamethrin is marketed in the form of a liquid concentrate for the formulation of insecticides for industrial and household use. This substance is very active even at very low concentrations.

This substance is listed in article 95 of the biocide regulation in the “Insecticide” category (TP18).

Composition :
Deltamethrin: 100 g/l.
Solvents : qsp 1 liter

Mode of action :
Deltamethrin is a very powerful polyvalent pyrethroid, which acts by contact and by ingestion. It is effective on most flying and crawling insects (mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, fleas, bedbugs, grain and wood insects, termites, etc.). It is a photostable, residual insecticide, which provides long-lasting protection against parasites.

Uses :
Deltamethrin is very widely used in a variety of formulations: insecticidal concentrates or ready-to-use products, such as liquids for domestic or professional use, solutions for aerosols, control of disease vectors (chikungugnya, dengue haemorrhagic fever, mosquitoes (products mosquito control in spatial treatment), etc.