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The toothpaste, a product of common use


Toothpaste through ages

According to the manuscripts, we find traces of toothpaste (mix of salt, pepper, mint leaves and iris flowers) around the ive century BC
The Egyptians, then the Romans, rub on their teeth a powder to whiten them and purify the breath.
It is to the Romans that the term dentifrice (dentifrictium), dens, tooth, and fricare, rub.
During time and following the regions, mixtures of plants (menthe,) of alun, ash, clay or cinnamon sticks were used as a toothpaste, or even roots.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the toothbrush was usually used with water only, but gradually the toothbrush powders gained popularity.
Most were home. The most common ingredients were chalk, sprayed brick and salt.
It was recommended in 1866 to use charcoal; Many toothpaste powders were patented on this basis and did more harm than good.

From 1900 was recommended a tooth paste made of soda bicarbonate, transformed into a paste by adding a little hydrogen peroxide solution.
Prepackaged toothpaste was first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity of home-grown toothpaste prior to the World War I.

Regulatory status of toothpaste

In europe, the toothpaste may have two regulatory statutes:

1. toothpastes with market authorization (amm) have a drug status and have therefore obtained a visa from the Ministry of Health after having undergone many tests of control. They can only be sold in pharmacy. They are backed to more than 1500 ppm.
2. Toothpaste without amm. they are dosed to less than 1500 ppm of fluorine and are considered cosmetics. these toothpastes are marketed in distribution circuits other than offensive. However, some may be, such as drug toothpaste, qualified as "health benefits" or certified by certifying bodies such as the adf (French dental association) and be sold in pharmacy.

Toothpaste for all tastes

  • Fluorine
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-age
  • For sensitive teeth
  • Anti-acidity
  • For gums
  • For children
  • Anticaria
  • Bleaching
  • All-in-one toothpaste
  • Antitarter
  • Natural

But whatever its name, globally, the composition of a toothpaste differs little.

What you can find in an industrial toothpaste

  • water
  • humectant agents
  • polishing agents
  • smoothing agents
  • thickening agents
  • antibacterial agents
  • conservative agents
  • dyeing agents
  • aromas
  • calcium produced from animal bones or lime
  • fluorine

The different agents of a toothpaste

Humectant agents:
They make up 15 to 25% of the toothpaste and are used to keep to the toothpaste its fluid consistency and avoid its hardening in contact with the air. (sorbitol, glycerol, propylene-glycol).
Polishing agents:
They can make up 30 to 50% of the toothpaste formula. they are intended to eliminate the bacterial plate and dyes of dental surfaces. Attention to sensitive teeth, these agents must then be soft enough not to cause abrasion of enamel and dentin which is the main tissue of tooth. then prefer polyethylene or methacrylate toothpaste. abrasives (calcium carbonate, calcium phosphates, sodium phosphates).: A compromise is sought between the cleansing, polishing and abrasive power influenced by particle characteristics (size, hardness, shape).
The foaming agents:
They represent 1 to 2% of the toothpaste. they have emulsifying properties, foaming (tensioactivity,) foaming and detergent. Attention to people with oral mucous membrane conditions (e.g., aphthuses). It is recommended that they avoid toothpaste based on sodium lauryl sulfate: this foaming agent can promote epithelial desquamation.
Thickening agents:
They represent 0.5% to 2% of the toothpaste. They give the toothpaste its consistency and viscosity. binders (cellulosic derivatives, carraghenates, alginates): they stabilize the suspension by their thickening power and optimise consistency.
Conservative agents:
They are antibacterial products. They include methyl benzoate parahydroxy, propyl benzoate parahydroxy benzoate, sodium benzoate, chlorhexidine. they ensure protection against microbial contamination and proliferation by their bacteriostatic, bactericidal or fungicide powers depending on the nature and concentration of the product used. The addition of preservatives is then not necessary in toothpastes involving these molecules.
Coloring agents:
To improve the whiteness of pasta, it is usually titanium dioxide that is added. it is an inert mineral agent with no toxicity.
Less than 1% of the formula, they give the toothpaste its taste. the possible addition of non-cariogenic synthetic sugar agents (saccharine, aspartame). gives the toothpaste its final taste. to be compatible with homeopathic treatment, toothpaste should not contain either menthol or mint essence. these toothpastes will then generally be flavored with apple. for children, in order to discourage their natural tendency to swallow toothpaste (40% of ingested paste at 5 years old), it can be wise to avoid taste too similar to that of a candy.
Active principles:
Has the purely cosmetic function of toothpaste, complementary functions such as caries prevention, control of bacterial biofilm, weight loss, dentiary hypersensitivity. have been added. these functions are performed by one or more active principles incorporated in the toothpaste formula. Inorganic fluorides (naf sodium fluoride and namfp sodium monofluorophosphate) are the most common.

Article of dr. sauzereau guillaume (30 January 2009)

Composition of three toothpastes of trade

Fluorine toothpaste, long-term antibacterial protection :
Aqua, hydrated silica, glycerin, sorbitol, pvm/ma copolymer, sodium lauryl sulfate, cl 77891, aroma, cellulose gum, sodium hydroxide, carrageenan, sodium fluoride, triclosan, sodium saccharin. sodium fluoride (1450 ppm fluoride).

Toothpaste gum protection 75 ml :
Aqua, glycerin, hydrated silica, PVM/MA copolymer, sodium lauryl sulfate, cellulose gum, aroma, sodium hydroxide, carrageenan, sodium fluoride, triclosan, sodium saccharin, eugenol, limonene, ci 77891.

Anti-Bacterial protection toothpaste 75 ml :
Aqua, hydrated silica, glycerin, sorbitol, pvm/ma copolymer, sodium lauryl sulfate, aroma, ci 77891, cellulose gum, sodium hydroxide, sodium fluoride, triclosan, carrageenan, sodium saccharin.

Three toothpastes have the same components:
Aqua, hydrated silica, glycerin, pvm/ma copolymer, sodium lauryl sulfate,aroma, cellulose gum, sodium hydroxide, sodium fluoride, carrageenan, triclosan, sodium saccharin, ci 77891.

Two toothpastes have in common: the sorbitol

Only long-term antibacterial protection indicates the amount of fluoride (1450 ppm) below the 1500 threshold to remain cosmetic.

  • Aqua: water
  • hydrated silica : Silicon acid (abrasive agent, absorbent agent, opacifier, viscosity control agent, antiagglomerant agent)
  • glycerin: Glycerin (e422) denaturing, humectant, solvent
  • pvm/ma copolymer Pvm = polyvinyl methyl ether / MA=Maleic anhydride (antistatic agent, binder, emulsion stabilizer, film agent, capillary fixer )
  • sodium lauryl sulfate : Sodium laurylsulfate (sls - E487) denaturing, emulsifying agent, tensioactive, foaming agent
  • aroma :arome
  • cellulose gum: binder, emulsion stabilizer, film agent, viscosity control agent
  • hydroxide sodium: Soude (sodium hydroxide - e524) buffer agent, denaturing
  • fluoride sodium: Sodium fluoride (oral hygiene, ply control)
  • carrageenan: Carraghenane (E407) (liant, emulsion stabilizer, viscosity control agent)
  • triclosan : Triclosan (tcs) Conservative
  • sodium saccharin : Sodium saccharin (e954iv) oral hygiene, masking agent
  • CI 77891 : Titanium dioxide (E171 - white)
  • sorbitol: Sorbitol (e420) moisturizing, laminating, skin maintenance

Silicic acid (abrasif)

The essential element of the toothpaste (all toothpaste contain it) the abrasive gives the dough its cleansing power and facilitates the removal of food residues, bacterial plate and spots left by tea, coffee and food dyes.
Abrasive poses the problem of the balance to be found between cleaning power (disposal of colors) and respect for enamel.
It is a bit the quadrature of the circle to the extent that an effective toothpaste in the removal of stains is necessarily abrasive for enamel.
Although the manufacturers say in their adhesives, an abrasive is never soft.
The effectiveness of the abrasive depends on its hardness, the size of the abrasive particles and its concentration in the toothpaste. the most used abrasives are silica and calcium carbonate.
If their abrasivity is equivalent (1,) around 140, on the other hand, the efficacy of calcium carbonate appears to be higher than silica to eliminate extrinsic stains and coloured deposits, as shown by a two-week comparative study.
Sodium metaphosphate (170), Alumina (260), Anhydrous calcium phosphate (530) are also found in a growing order of absorption.
Sodium bicarbonate also enters the composition of certain toothpastes.
It is also available in pharmacy as a powder. used in household maintenance (recuring cream) it will be kept to use to clean its teeth.

Degree of absolute
Abrasivity is indicated by abbreviation rda (relative dentin abrasion), followed by a figure.
Under 20, the toothpaste is very little abrasive. between 20 and 40, it is weakly abrasive, between 40 and 60, moderately, between 60 and 80, it is considered abrasive and above 80 as very abrasive.
Unfortunately, manufacturers are not required to indicate the degree of abrasiveness of their product and, in practice, few do.
For example, we did not find this information on the dentifrices for sale on the internet and not more on the toothpastes present in the linear of a supermarket.
In this field, opacity is a rule and the consumer must stick to the manufacturer's promises.
"Minimum abrasion" announces a manufacturer, which strictly means nothing, knowing that the toothpaste in question contains silica and calcium carbonate.
Never buy a toothpaste that boasts to whiten teeth without mentioning its composition (such offers abound on the internet).
False allegations
To promote their products, manufacturers do not hesitate to promise: "smiling smile," "anti-stain", bleaching.
Or a toothpaste, even very abrasive, can only eliminate the stains and colors present on the surface of the enamel.
In other words, an abrasive toothpaste can give the tooth its natural complexion but in no way shed light on this complexion.
Or the natural shade of a tooth is not white but varies from yellow to grey.
The use of the bleaching term is therefore abusive for this type of toothpaste whose action is limited to the surface of the tooth.
Another example of a false claim, a toothpaste appears as "whitening without any chemical or abrasive" while its composition mentions the presence of calcium carbonate and silica which are two abrasives !
In the same register, another announcement that its "white system actively reinforces enamel.".
Here is a catch that does not lack salt when you know that the abrasives contained in this toothpaste (silice and calcium carbonate) will precisely reduce the thickness of the enamel to the long.
In the field of toothpaste, manufacturers are free to assert anything and apparently do not deprive themselves of doing so. everything is good to impose on a highly competitive market.
Attention to the wear of the enamel
Used daily, an abrasive toothpaste also uses enamel already exposed to many aggressions related to our excessively acid modern diet (sodas, acid fruits, etc.).
Discarding the enamel regularly makes it more porous and able to fix the dyes more easily.
So it's a vicious circle. Decaping toothpaste should therefore be reserved for one-time use (not more than once a week). No one would have the idea of shifting his skin daily with a peeling.
We will have understood the need to preserve its enamel capital when we know that, unlike the skin, enamel is a dead organ, a mineral that does not regenerate (read the enamel section of the pratikadent).

Estelle vereeck article, doctor of dental surgery on abrasive products in toothpaste.

The toothpastes claiming whiteness are particularly tempting. but according to a survey of "60 million consumers", they are far too abrasive and may increase the wear of teeth.
The limits set by the standards for active principles should be reduced.
In the meantime, it would be rather recommended not to use a continuous abrasive toothpaste.

Sodium lauryl sulfate

Sodium lauryl sulfate tensioactive, very degreasing, is no longer used as primary tensioactive in soaps or shampoos as it is drying and irritating to the skin. However, it is the most used detergent in the toothpaste. it could make the inside of the mouth more vulnerable by removing the protective layer based on mucin that tapes it.
Three clinical studies (preliminary 14, one single without 15 and one double without 6) concluded that a toothpaste containing this substance caused more recurrences of aphthuses in predisposed individuals than a toothpaste that was lacking.
However, a more recent, dual-blind clinical study that also focuses on people with repetitive aphthuses did not find any difference between the two types of toothpaste.

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide is a solid statistical formula ionic naoh.
The solution from the dissolution of this crystal is called soude, even caustic soda.
The aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide can be sold under the name "soda laundry".
This product is quite common in the trade, presented as a pipeline provider.

Fluoride or sodium fluoride

Fluorine damage:
It acts in depth by promoting scoliosis, ligament hyper laxity, accelerated degeneration of the body.
All chronic intoxications by fluorine cause deep psychic disorders - especially loss of the own will - that can go up to madness, especially when poisoning takes place during growth.
Certain factories in france were forced to close due to this type of harm on the surrounding population.
It is recognized toxic in drinking water and must not exceed a certain threshold to be considered safe.
Fluorine a so-called medical use:
Would it be useful to prevent dental caries ?
That's not true. the statistical tables provided by the O.M.S. show a slight decrease in the number of caries in the first year, and then an increase very higher than the usual rates ...
But it is often systematically prescribed to all children, even when the water consumed usually is already rich in fluorine.

Attention to fluorine overdose:

1- minimum dose of fluoride causing acute poisoning:
Symptoms of acute fluoride poisoning (e.g. gastrointestinal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache) can be triggered at doses as low as 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg. 50 times less than the fatal dose (5 mg/kg).

Ingestion of as little as 1% of a children's flavoured toothpaste tube can cause acute fluoride poisoning.

2- minimum fatal fluoride dose:
It is currently estimated that the minimum fatal fluoride dose is 5 mg/kg (i.e. 5 milligrams of fluoride per kilogram of body weight). in medical literature, this dose is the "probably lethal dose" or dpl (probably toxic Dose-PTD). this dose can lead to severe poisoning that can cause death.
All toothpaste sold in the United States and canada, including toothpaste flavoured for children, contain the minimum fatal fluoride dose.

Each year, thousands of cases of fluoride poisoning are reported to the U.S. poisoning centres as a result of excessive fluoride ingestion found in dental products (toothpaste, fly rinses, food supplements). These symptoms are at the origin of a large number of calls to poison centres.

The triclosan

Triclosan is an antifungal and antibacterial agent with broad spectrum. it is also called 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol.
It is found in soaps, deodorants, toothpastes and a lot of common consumer products: kitchen utensils, toys, bedding, trash bags.
It reduces bacterial contamination on the hands and processed products.
Triclosan is hardly biodegradable. In 1999, margaretha Adolfsson-Erici, Swedish researcher, showed that the water released by the treatment plants and the muds that were treated contained triclosan.
Triclosan is part of endocrine disruptors.
Its effects were observed in amphibians (rana catesbeiana, xenopus laevis).
It has shown chronic and acute toxicity in aquatic species. triclosan is bioaccumulative.

More disturbing, another Swedish study reveals its presence in animal food, urban air and rain. Breast milk is not spared, proof that we are assimilating without knowing more or less large quantities of this product.
Triclosan was suspected of causing the development of more resistant bacteria. but no study has been able to prove this effect to date.
Studies have shown that triclosan can be combined with chlorine to form chloroform[2] gaseous. the conditions necessary for this chemical reaction require a significant excess of chlorine and a high concentration of triclosan.

The European sccp (scientific committee of consumer products) emphasizes that triclosan has the ability to cross in large proportions the skin barrier (particularly its presence has been detected in the breast milk of women exposed to it), thus calling into question the threshold so far allowed of the noael (dose without observed harmful effect).
Even if it does not conclude the asserted mutagenic or genotoxic character of a compound Sccp, however, considers that its use at currently permitted doses in all cosmetic products (0.3% for triclosan, 0.2% for triclocarban as a preservative and 1.5% if used for other purposes in rinsing products) does not guarantee consumer safety.
It recommends that its use be limited to toothpastes, hand soaps, shower gels and deodorants.
Employment in some makeup products could be considered acceptable, but not that in cosmetics not to rinse as for example milks for the body.
This notice must now be translated into European regulations, which may require some time (an average of 18 months to 2 years).

The sodium saccharin

Toxicologists fear that this titanium dioxide can pass the biological barriers, or even accumulate in some organs (cell cytoplasm) because of insufficient removal by the kidney.
They fear that tio2 having penetrated the cells is their adn (observed in vitro) with long-term effects on the individual and subsequent generations. titanium dioxide is a ceramic whose hardness can weaken the enamel.
So the toothpaste will be avoided, especially in regular use.

Titanium dioxide

Toxicologists fear that this titanium dioxide can pass the biological barriers, or even accumulate in some organs (cell cytoplasm) because of insufficient removal by the kidney.
They fear that the tio2 having penetrated the cells is their adn (observed in vitro) with long-term effects on the individual and subsequent generations titanium dioxide is a ceramic whose hardness can weaken the enamel.
So the toothpaste will be avoided, especially in regular use.

To choose a toothpaste, ask your dentist for advice

Let's first twist the neck to an idea received that fits well the toothpaste manufacturers: no, your teeth will not be stronger or cleaner if you put more toothpaste.
"The right amount of toothpaste is the equivalent of the width of the toothbrush and not the length, as many people tend to believe it", explains the dr christophe lequart, dentist surgeon, technical advisor responsible for the communication of the French union for oral care (ufsbd).
Before choosing any toothpaste, ask your dentist for advice. It is best placed to establish a diagnosis.
"We must not lose sight that the toothpaste is not a care for him alone," says the dr lequart. "it is an interesting supplement to the treatments brought by the dentist. "

To understand, let's first come back on the formation of the carie. has the surface of the teeth, there is always a multitude of bacteria. They use the sugars of our diet to feed and then reject acid productions. These will attack the enamel that covers and protects the tooth. It is therefore vulnerable and bacteria can stay there. and it's the beginning of the end for the poor tooth that has been targeted.

Saliva is an ally of the enamel. it neutralizes the acid and brings the necessary minerals to strengthen it.

The role of fluorine is to help the minerals to settle on the enamel. anti-cary toothpaste is therefore reinforced in fluorine.
The quantity is age-dependent. Indeed, overdose is not desirable: it might make teeth more susceptible to acid attacks, or the reverse of the desired effect.

For adults, the recommended dose is between 1200 and 1250 ppm (parts per million). Some toothpastes go up to 1500 ppm, but they are only sold in pharmacy.
For children 6 to 12 years of age, the recommended dose is 1000 ppm.
Under 6 years, a toothpaste with less than 600 ppm fluorine will be selected.

How do we know if we have to opt for this type of toothpaste ?
The number of geese you suffered is a good indication.
The dentist will also look at the shape of your teeth (bacteriums find more easily refuge when there are interstices), the quality of your enamel and question you about your eating and hygiene habits.

It is advisable to alter the types of toothpaste, especially if you suffer from several small dental disorders at a time. but there is no contraindication to always use the same.

Contaminated toothpaste

Between May and July 2007, various European health authorities (Spanish, Great Britain) and Americans (canada, United States) launched global alerts to report on their territory the presence of toothpastes containing glycol diethylene or contaminated with bacteria (enterobacteria).
Diethylene glycol is a substance used as solvent or as antifreeze. It was used in identified toothpaste, as thickening in replacement of glycerin. It is toxic when ingested. diethylene glycol has been banned in toothpaste since 2 August 2007 by a health police decision.
This decision is related to the withdrawal and prohibition of manufacturing, import, export, wholesale distribution, free or expensive marketing, detention for free sale or distribution and the use of toothpaste to which diethylene glycol was incorporated as an ingredient (02/08/07)

Toothpaste without unwanted compounds

It uses several times a day of toothpaste and as many cosmetics, they contain authorized but unwanted compounds: preservatives of the paraben family (propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben), allergens, non-food dyes, irritant compounds.
Certain toothpastes manufactured abroad (seat, UK, España, USA, China) may also contain prohibited components.
It should not be forgotten that the oral mucosa is twice as permeable as the skin, so it will absorb the chemical molecules twice as quickly.
The composition of your toothpaste is therefore extremely important.
Another important point to note: despite the rinsing of the mouth, it is possible, and mainly children, that a little toothpaste is swallowed at each brush.
Then why not opt for organic toothpaste, formulated from ingredients of natural origin, and rich in plant assets?

Sources and information on toothpaste


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